Saturday, December 31, 2016

Captain Beefheart — Strictly Personal


   In the history of rock music Captain Beefheart can be seen as an enfant terrible of experimental subgenres. From his debut he was one of most influencing figures, although his impact on various groups of musicians and listeners was varied. Acclaimed by critics, but generally unpopular in wide audiences, inspiring for many musicians and worshiped by group of fans, Captain Beefheart was highly creative, unconventional though he was using his creative ideas and in quite a traditional way being a kind of scarecrow for opportunists and conservatives. Although whole of his output is noteworthy, especially his early albums have the power of revolutionizing shape of rock and roll culture. But still these first experiments are in close bonds with deep stream of folk blues and traditional music.
   After successful debut album Safe as Milk, Captain Beefheart and His Magic Band became product of show business and had to play according to its rules. It was a part of the system to focus the style of the band in one of most popular sub-genres to better reach the target group. Material recorded initially in October 1967 for Buddah Records but it was rejected for its noncommercial character. Producer Bob Krasnow decided to publish the album in his own label Blue Thumb and finally Captain Beefheart’s second album was recorded at Hollywood Sunset Sound Studios in last week of April 1968 and was released in October 1968. Producer of the album added some trendy effect like extended phasing and reverb to make Magic Band sound more psychedelic.
   While transferring new album to another record company the primary concept of the album has been matter of change. Initially it was called It Comes to You in a Plain Brown Wrapper and cover design of Strictly Personal is a kind of remainder for this idea. What happened Buddah Records executives didn’t approve artist’s work was their disapproval for Don Van Vliet’s experimental attitude towards music. Captain Beefheart and His Magic Band came from social activism aiming to be radical artistic movement and expanding the boundaries of popular music beyond jazz or even contemporary artistic music. Debut album Save as Milk was compromise from both sides, but after it was published, artists work on more clear and advanced ideas while company was counting on reduction of risk and waiting for more moderate songs.

Captain Beefheart — Strictly Personal (1968)

   In 1967 executives of record company discarded the work done by musicians. After successes of Trout Mask Replica (1969) and Lick My Decals Off, Baby (1970), parts of 1967 autumn sessions were published in 1971 by Buddah Records as Mirror Man album produced by Bob Krasnow. During 1967 autumn imbroglio some ideas of sound structure had changed, but the personnel recording Strictly Personal remained unchanged. Ry Cooder left the band after Save as Milk. He was replaced by Jeff Cotton. This way Magic Band lineup had stabilized in 1967 with Alex St. Clair and Jeff Cotton (guitars), Jerry Hendley (bass), John French (drums) and Don Van Vliet (vocal and harmonica). This lineup stayed until 1970 when Jeff Cotton suffered in argument and left the band. This was moment when Don Van Vliet was experimenting with social engineering of the band, depriving musicians of sleep and food.
   Eight songs of Strictly Personal program is a collection differentiated and giving clear picture of band’s artistic explorations. Some ideas are more surrealistic than famous Trout Mask Replica masterpiece. While other Capt. Beefheart’s recordings in this period were based on traditional folk blues roots, ideas of Strictly Personal are more abstractive. Unofficial sixth band member was Bob Krasnow who edited bands recordings changing its initial sound and adding some alienating effects to make it sound closer to psychedelic bands. Even black and white photography of the band inside gatefold cover show masked band. In these outfit they look so strange, it is hard to determine if this is allusion to cheap science fiction movies or surrealistic vision of some archetypical characters of popular imagination.

Sunday, December 25, 2016

Diana Krall • Christmas Songs


   Diana Krall is recognized as one of best jazz singers in last decade of 20th century and first decades of 21st century. Born and raised in Canada, married to English singer and songwriter Elvis Costello, since the beginning of her career she is one of stars of international fame. After studies in Berklee College, Krall debuted in 1993 with album Stepping Out recorded in trio with acoustic bass player John Clayton and drummer Jeff Hamilton. Her acoustic style and contemporary interpretations of standards from American songbook were in straight connection with tradition tracing popular music history through artistry of post-war popular songs to its sources in 1920’s. Her sparing piano style was also the element perfectly in style audience was demanded. Repertoire and interpretations made she was considered as continuing Nat King Cole tradition. And she was casted in this role from the beginning of her career.
   When she published her first album, she became immediately famous as a revelation of vocal jazz and traditional pop music. Big audience at the end of 20th century was surfeited with digital culture covering human presence with any kind of sound glut. She was well prepared but still emotional, competent but natural and her singing was as much jazz as popular, charm and melodious as for popular music but conscious of consequences of every move and firmly bounded with harmonic changes as in jazz world – she was just the one many were waiting for. Her nicely deep contralto and simple piano style occurred to be perfectly adequate to smooth jazz, bossa nova and traditional popular music.

Diana Krall • Christmas Songs (2016 release)

   Big success of Canadian pianist and singer was connected with wide social process of changing the attitude towards jazz and traditional popular song. Five Grammy Awards and eight further Grammy nominations gave her position of international celebrity, so common for popular music stars and so much unusual in jazz world. From 2002 Diana Krall is published by Verve Records. In 2005 this label released Krall’s first and so far only album for Christmas. This was also her first studio album with big band. And it’s not an accident that the band was Clayton/Hamilton Jazz Orchestra – the band of two musicians she was recording starting her career. With 23 musicians of the Orchestra singer and pianist sounded still perfectly in her style.
   The repertoire of this record is convincing set of most popular Christmas songs. From Jingle Bells and Let It Snow, through Christmas Time is Here and Santa Claus is Coming to Town, to White Christmas and Sleigh Ride – all 12 songs are creating nice collection of season blockbusters. Smoothly jazzy interpretations are showing her deep and warm voice in these holiday songs. In series of perfectly produced orchestrations these songs sound surprisingly fresh. Arrangements are based on modern big-band style and studio features. Although deep rooted in traditional style, Krall is singing with strong interpretative impact, giving listeners one more opportunity to listen these old hits in contemporary outfit. 

Wednesday, December 21, 2016

Alexander von Zemlinsky • Lyrische Symphonie op. 18 • Bernhard Klee


   Orchestral cycle of songs was undeniably one of greatest achievements of musical culture in romantic period. Although its formal idea has long evolution between early romantic songs, late-romantic cantata and postromantic symphony with vocal parts and various works for voice and orchestra, it was late Romanticism when development of symphonic cycle of songs resulted as independent form. Best examples were all cycles of orchestral songs by Gustav Mahler and cycles like Vier letzte Lieder by Richard Strauss, or Gurre-Lieder by Arnold Schoenberg. From perspective of symphonic cycle also symphonies by Gustav Mahler played significant role for numerous references to romantic song forms. In this context special role played Das Lied von der Erde as it was the synthesis uniting symphonic cycle of songs and romantic symphony. Lyrical Symphony composed in 1923 by Alexander von Zemlinsky belongs to most famous implementations of this idea.
   Composer, conductor and teacher, Alexander von Zemlinsky was one of key figures of Viennese culture in last decade of 19th and first decades of 20th century. Born in Vienna in multicultural family, Zemlinsky started composer’s career as student of Johann Nepomuk Fuchs and Anton Bruckner. He was composing in postromantic style, continuing the style of Johannes Brahms, whom Zemlinsky personally met and who gave young composer strong support. At the turn of the century he was part of Vienese modernistic movement with Gustav Mahler who conducted premiere of his opera Es war einmal. These two were connected on private level since Mahler married Zemlinsky’s beloved Alma Schindler. Alexander von Zemlinsky was close friend and brother-in-law with Arnold Schoenberg who was his student of counterpoint and long time co-worker. One of Zemlinsky’s pupils was Erich Wolfgang Korngold, recommended him as infant prodigy by Gustav Mahler.

Alexander von Zemlinsky • Lyrische Symphonie op. 18 • Klee (1981)

   The list of Zemlinsky’s works includes songs, symphonic, chamber and piano music and eight operas and stage works like Ein Tanzpoem (Dance Poem) and Mime drama Ein Lichtstrahl (Ray of Light). Completed in December 1919 one act opera Der Zwerg (The Dwarf) was his reaction for breaking engagement by Alma Schindler. Probably the best-known works by Zemlinsky are compositions for voice and orchestra: Waldgespräch with words by Joseph von Eichendorff, Sechs Gesänge after poems by Maurice Maeterlinck Op. 13, Symphonische Gesänge Op. 20 to the lyrics by afroamerican poets and Lyrical Symphony Op. 18. Symphonic intensity and power of poetry gave all modernist composers wide means of expression.
   Most popular work by Alexander von Zemlinsky was Lyrical Symphony for baritone, soprano and orchestra in Seven Cantos to Texts by Nobel’s Prize laureate Rabindranath Tagore. It was written in 1922 and 1923, and lyrical cycle was set of seven poems translated by Hans Effenberger. Baritone and soprano voices take their own parts in narrative, creating dramatic tension. The main composer’s idea was to place these songs into cycle corresponding with formal scheme of symphony. But final effect is closer to symphonic poem, including cantos which can be understand as consecutive images of mystical voyage and developing symbolic vision of human faith. Performance of Radio-Symphonie-Orchester Berlin conducted by Bernhard Klee features baritone Dale Duesing and soprano Elisabeth Söderström. Recording was made between June 30 and July 2nd, 1980 in Berlin, Jesus-Christus-Kirche and published next year in Dusseldorf by Schwann Musica Mundi label.

Friday, April 22, 2016

Yehudi Menuhin Two Violin Concertos by Max Bruch


   Although idea of string instrument with the bow was common in ancient civilizations, violin itself has relatively short history. We know violin as instrument constructed in 16th century Italy, and with slight modifications made in 18th and 19th century this form of violin lasts until today.  The violin music is one of main currents of virtuoso repertoire, and it’s needless to say violin is most common instrument in orchestras and chamber ensembles. This makes violin artistry, just as it is with great voices or piano virtuosi the theme for unending debates. It’s hard to count all great violinists of last century, but all listeners agree Yehudi Menuhin was one of very few virtuosos occupying the position of the best. He recorded more than five hundred records as violinist and conductor.
   Yehudi Menuhin, born April 22, 1916 in New York, was undeniably one of very few virtuosi dominated 20th century scenes. He was famous most of all for his virtuoso technique, deep, emotional sound and balanced interpretations. His strengths were also wide spectrum of musical knowledge and stylistic versatility. He started to learn in the age of four, as seven year old he debuted with San Francisco Symphony Orchestra. As 10 years old, January 6th, 1927 Menuhin debuted in Berlin with orchestra conducted by Bruno Walter. The same time he started recording, and in next years he was active virtuoso at most famous philharmonic halls in Europe. Turning 20, he was already world famous virtuoso. During the 2nd World War violinist give concerts in all military bases of US Army and was the first who was giving concerts in liberated European cities. In April 1945 he gave concert for surviving inmates of concentration camp in Bergen-Belsen. Two years later he was the first Jewish musician who gave concert with Berliner Philharmoniker and Wilhelm Furtwängler in an act of reconciliation. 

Yehudi Menuhin  - Max Bruch - Two Violin Concertos (1974)

   After the war Menuhin became public personality – famous musician was internationally recognized intellectualist, who entered to European culture many elements of remote civilizations, especially yoga masters and Indian classical music. He was honorary patron for international musical schools, prizes, music festivals and orchestras. As he made series of recordings with Wilhelm Furtwängler, he was famous for his peace and international cooperation advocacy. For his achievements he was made an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire. He was also active as conductor and performer of non classical music. He was recording with Ravi Shankar, and their famous 1967 album West Meets East won the Grammy Award. Yehudi Menuhin made famous recordings with Stephane Grapelli, which was significant element in process of appreciating jazz in classical music community.
   Being at the height of his fame in 1973 Yehudi Menuhin recorded first two of three violin concertos composed by Max Bruch. It is an interesting album as the chance to hear these two concertos. The first Concerto G Minor op. 26 is famous as conservative romanticism in style of Mendelssohn’s Concerto E Minor, so it is present in world culture in dozens of great recordings. Second Bruch’s Concerto D Minor op. 44 is relatively forgotten. The EMI His Master’s Voice label album is a great possibility to compare both concertos in one competent rendition. It is also a chance to compare various moments in soloist career since Bruch’s G Minor Concerto was Menuhin’s first concert recording in 1931 conducted Sir Landon Ronald. And in later decades Menuhin played this concerto permanently. Both concertos are recorded with wide gesture of romantic emotionalism and precisely executed solo and orchestral parts. In some virtuoso fragments of 2nd Concerto Menuhin had problems with his right hand and the bow was too heavy, sometimes he has some tendency to slide in fast passages, but general effect is satisfactory. Four stars considering great performance of Concerto G Minor and competent presentation of second. 

Sunday, March 13, 2016

Emerson, Lake & Palmer — Brain Salad Surgery


   The legendary supergroup of progressive rock, Emerson, Lake and Palmer was formed in 1970 by pianist and organist Keith Emerson who was known before as a member of progressive band The Nice, Greg Lake, singer and bassist of King Crimson and Carl Palmer, drummer of Atomic Rooster. Trio achieved instant success, in Isle of Wight Festival in August and with their debut album Emerson, Lake & Palmer released in November 1970. Next four albums established their position as legendary band of progressive rock: Tarkus and Pictures at an Exhibition in 1971, Trilogy in 1972 and Brain Salad Surgery in 1973. Especially Brain Salad Surgery was a kind of recapitulation of first chapter in the history of the band. Next albums were released after three and half year period – 2LP Works Volume 1 and Works Volume 2 did not occurred to be the next success and bright ELP fame became fading. 
   Characteristic decision is lack of title composition Brain Salad Surgery, which was recorded but not included into the program. It was published with two other songs recorded in 1973 on Works Volume 2, and as other songs of 1977 gone generally unnoticed. Program opens with Jerusalem song. It is modified version of popular hymn written by Hubert Parry (1848-1918) to William Blake’s poem And Did Those Feet in Ancient Time. Using this anthem as an opening of modern, progressive album was clear and strong statement. The idea of England as Jerusalem build among dark Satanic Mills is strong vision that makes Parry’s song most popular patriotic song and unofficial national anthem. In version modified by Emerson, Lake and Palmer, this song was published as a single to express band’s open affection to England but BBC banned this version. In fact BBC leading personalities John Peel was against ELP from the very beginning, after Isle of Wight performance he said this was “waste of talent and electricity”. Musicians were disappointed with the decision which was probably result of massive use of Moog Apollo, the first-ever polyphonic synthesizer and electronic sound effects.

Emerson, Lake & Palmer • Brain Salad Surgery (1973)

   After this hymnal, sublime entrance, Toccata by Alberto Ginastera, arranged by Keith Emerson shows opposite face of the band, virtuoso, creative and competitive. Its intensive motoric rhythm with irregular accents, already known from Tarkus and Pictures at an Exhibition, was the hallmark of trio music. Here Keith Emerson shows his huge potential as virtuoso of electronic keyboard. Typical element in Emerson, Lake & Palmer albums was the opposition of ballades. Such position in program of Brain Salad Surgery takes Greg Lake’s lyric song Still...You Turn Me On with nice contrasting electronic inserts. This composition in pure style of progrock is overcome with Benny the Bouncer sounding like a glam rock parody with a saloon style piano. But in 1973, in context of the whole genre this was just one more view into the futuristic sound possibilities and progressive arrangements promising new level of musical creativity. This context was reinforced by the album artwork created by H. R. Giger.
   The program is closed by Karn Evil 9, almost half hour long, extended work of three polystylistic impressions and longest studio composition of the band.  It is placed on big part of first side and whole second side. First impression is divided on two sides of vinyl record. Starting with blues phrase, it shortly takes position of hard rock expression with changes of tempo, meter and syncopations. Every previous album of ELP gave new evidence every musician of the trio was musical erudite. Keith Emerson was the leader on this field. Here band is balancing all the styles used by progressive rock bands, even jazz. In climax of Emerson’s piano improvisation one can hear St. Thomas theme by Sonny Rollins played with clearly jazzy feeling. Words were written by Greg Lake with support of Peter Sinfield, poet known for his contribution in In the Court of the Crimson King and member of King Crimson band. Electronically processed Keith Emerson’s voice was used in the end of third Impression. In effect of ambitious idea and consequent work, Karn Evil 9 was not only massive, but spread to cover widely developed progressive rock.

Tuesday, March 8, 2016

Herbert von Karajan — Ludwig van Beethoven — Symphonies 1st & 2nd — 1963


   The full cycle of Ludwig van Beethoven’s nine symphonies is one of highest achievements in the history of music, especially in orchestral music and in symphonic form. Considering the role of these symphonies play in the history of music, it’s needless to say, this is mandatory set of works in artistic development of every orchestra. The same applies to conductor. Performances of Beethoven’s symphonies usually reveal what the real possibilities of an orchestra and conductor are. Whatever we can say about different esthetic attitudes, perfect symphonic form, augmented with rich musical semantics and emotional content, these works always disclose real quality of musical art. Unprofessional orchestra can successfully play Symphony No. 1, maybe even Symphony No. 2, but there is no amateur band which is able to play the whole cycle. In opposite to this, best orchestras have no problem with performing symphonies, they are able to embody any particular vision of Beethoven’s music.
   Berliner Philharmoniker took position in the forefront of best symphony orchestras in the world. The band is sometimes called Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra (BPO), but its original German name is brand perfectly known for any educated person in the world. One of qualities of their sound is its flexibility and instant reaction for conductor’s gesture. This orchestra is perfect instrument and can change the way it sounds for any need. No wonder it embodies interpretative elements on every level of performing skills and always sounds as a continuation of conductor’s idea. This quality makes Berliner Philharmoniker just a perfect band performing and recording Ludwig van Beethoven’s music.

Herbert von Karajan — Beethoven — Symphonies 1st & 2nd (1963)

   The 1963 edition of Deutsche Grammophone Gesellschaft was the first time Herbert von Karajan recorded complete set of Beethoven’s symphonies with Berliner Philharmoniker. For many reasons this performance is the best one. For 55 years old Karajan this was critical point of his career. He already achieved all conductor can, he was recognized as great artist, he had recorded whole basic symphonic repertoire, he was working successfully with almost every significant orchestra in the world. For some reasons he was willing to be the best one, while he was still one of best only. Recording in 1963, 1977 and 1984 next sets of Beethoven’s symphonies he was aiming to reach the position of absolute leader of symphonic music. And the fact is no other part of musical tradition can equal the cycle of Beethoven’s nine symphonies.
   All four Karajan’s visions of Beethoven’s cycle were complementary, every symphony took its place in the sequence set as it was marking episodes in output of revolutionary composer. And Karajan was always tending to show this quality as a feature. In 1963 edition symphonies are rendered with separate plans using the possibilities of recording technique. Selective sound of every group makes whole orchestra sound in multidimensional sound space. And oppositions of orchestral sections are clear and energetic. Especially for the first two of symphonies this rendition is original, probably most unusual of Karajan’s interpretations. First two symphonies he shows in more sustained interpretations then these compositions are usually shown. Every element is consequently planned and executed. This way early Beethoven’s symphonies sound even more dramatic and emotional. These renditions reveal new possibilities of interpreting Beethoven’s works. Five stars for the record.

Sunday, January 31, 2016

Herbert von Karajan — Ludwig van Beethoven — Symphonies 1st & 2nd — 1977


   Symphonic works by Ludwig van Beethoven were the major position in Karajan’s repertoire. Beethoven’s style was always a perfect choice to show Maestro’s abilities to connect deeply emotional, dramatic matters with formal discipline. After success achieved with completes of symphonies recorded with Philharmonia Orchestra in 1950’s and with Berliner Philharmoniker in early 1960’s Karajan was perceived as a perfect performer of music by Beethoven. Recording his third complete of nine symphonies decade later, Karajan was way ahead in his career than any time before. He was famous as one of most charismatic conductors in the history of music, the orchestra in its best shape was working in the newly built house, performing and recording in new concert hall with outstanding acoustics. This moment was conceptualized as triple pentagon emblem symbolizing the unity: space-music-man in West Berlin Philharmonic.
   In second half of 1970’s Deutsche Grammophone released new complete of recordings of Beethoven’s nine symphonies conducted by Herbert von Karajan. Covers of new edition were series of photographic variations on numbers of included symphonies. Almost in parallel to this series, the same label had republished earlier complete with color cover photos of Karajan in various positions. This can be seen as an act of bravery considering artistic quality of first edition, but in fact there was no undue risk. As it was easy to predict, in second DGG edition Herbert von Karajan once again demonstrated his ability to create powerful constructions of symphonic works, reaching the heights of emotional and intellectual sophistication.

Karajan — Beethoven — Symphonies 1st & 2nd (1977)

   Comparing to strong, in some parts even rough performance of earlier decade, these renditions of first two symphonies have gentler and a bit subtler sound. Tempos in all movements are fast and jokes are easy to understand, what makes this vision less complicated than performances of 1963 album. For the same reasons 1977 rendition can be considered as well as more classical. This unity of formal context and well established ideas reveal entire work as emotional narration which is still classical, but already struggling with some new points. Minuet in Symphony C-Major Op. 21 sounds with demonic fatality and still is light merging sincerity with joker’s determination and cheerfulness. Dramatic effect in the beginning of Finale occurs to be next joke, and even more joyous pageant for the light-hearted closing of this early symphony being in a fast first step to break the classical style. 
   And the next Beethoven’s step toward the new century music was his second Symphony D-Major Op. 36. This time Beethoven makes his first change in formal construction of classical symphony — the third movement is signed as Scherzo, although it has more minuet features than Minuet in 1st Symphony. While Minuet in Symphony C-Major is in fact a scherzo, here we have opposite idea: considering rhythmic and melodic characteristics third part of 2nd Symphony is as much minuet as Minuet in 1st Symphony was a scherzo. It looks like Beethoven is hesitating between keeping old formal rules and expressing his individual experiences and feelings. Finale is just eruption of joy, closing this dramatic work with pleasant feelings. Just like it was expression of the seventies’ zeitgeist – dramatic but still full of hope.

Saturday, January 30, 2016

Herbert von Karajan — Ludwig van Beethoven — Symphonies 1st & 2nd — 1984


   Herbert von Karajan recorded Beethoven’s symphonies many times. Among dozens of studio and live recordings of performances with various orchestras, most important part of Karajan’s discography were cycles of nine symphonies he recorded first with Philharmonia Orchestra and three complete sets he recorded with Berliner Philharmoniker. First cycle has been published in 1955 by Columbia. Next three cycles were recorded for Deutsche Grammophone Gesellschaft — first in early 1960’s, second in late 1970’s and third in 1980’s. And these editions may be the most capacious vision of symphonic experience for those decades. Every rendition has its own qualities and fanatic proponents, wherein majority choices are generally earlier Karajan interpretations. In fact the volume of later editions was smaller, so the circulation of last performance was not as significant as it was before. Nonetheless this edition is extremely interesting one. It can be considered even as an artistic testament of the great conductor.
   The natural solution in Karajan’s DGG editions is setting first two of Beethoven’s symphonies on one LP. In 1970 these symphonies were reissued in changed configuration, but the main idea of keeping original order was retained in all editions. In fact the first two are among shortest of Beethoven’s symphonies and both are connected by style and orchestral demands. Strings, double winds, two trumpets and two horns plus timpani mark this instrumentation in classical mainstream. Although many stylistic elements show that music of first two Beethoven’s symphonies is clearly classical, most interesting qualities are elements differentiating young composer’s work from the conventional classical style. 

Karajan — Beethoven — 1st & 2nd Symphonies (1984)

   The First Symphony, composed in late 18th century and premiered in 1801 is rather a rebellious commentary than one more classical construction. Starting with harmonic passage introducing the key as a kind of musical joke, composer developing his construction always with a grain of salt, and in third movement Minuet everything become clear. It can be only a comic effect to imagine this very fast Allegro molto e vivace dance with minuet steps and figures. Keeping the name Minuet, Beethoven wrote his first scherzo in 1st Symphony. And since this movement is based entirely on harmonic scheme taken from opening Allegro con brio, there’s no doubt this is a caricature of these shaping principles. Here young Beethoven shows qualifications and sense of humor being manifestation of his independence.
   In Karajan’s 1984 recording Beethoven’s first two symphonies had been rendered in slightly slower tempos to enhance the articulation and sound perspective. The sound is unbelievably precise and thus the musical space is wide and clear, Beethoven’s music tissue in this recording looks like it was shown in aerial view. This occurred to be a great idea. Showing multitude of nuances, focusing his attention on various possible readings, Karajan gives listener a chance to find some new perspective and an unknown comprehension in decoding Beethoven’s music. After powerful Allegro con brio in 2nd Symphony, second movement  Larghetto spreads between mysticism and determination. Orchestra sounds clear and warm, sound space is as wide as it is possible. This deeply inspired performance opens whole series of Karajan’s 1984 recordings of Beethoven’s complete symphonies. Each record of this complete is worth highest rating, so this time there’s no need to count the stars.